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In 1475, the Hanseatic League set up its main trading base (kontor) of Britain in London, since called Stalhof or Steelyard.
It existed until 1853, when the Hanseatic cities of Lübeck, Bremen and Hamburg sold the property to South Eastern Railway.
By about 680, it had revived sufficiently to become a major port, although there is little evidence of large-scale production of goods.
From the 820s the town declined because of repeated Viking invasions.
But the reach of English maritime enterprise hardly extended beyond the seas of north-west Europe.
The commercial route to Italy and the Mediterranean Sea normally lay through Antwerp and over the Alps; any ships passing through the Strait of Gibraltar to or from England were likely to be Italian or Ragusan.
In the 16th century William Shakespeare and his contemporaries lived in London at a time of hostility to the development of the theatre.
By the end of the Tudor period in 1603, London was still very compact.
The population rose from an estimated 50,000 in 1530 to about 225,000 in 1605.This was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into West Germanic, the ancestor-language of English, already before English had become widely spoken in Britain.However, the etymology and original meaning of the British Celtic form is much debated.Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin (usually Londinium), Old English (usually Lunden), and Welsh (usually Llundein), with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages.It is agreed that the name came into these languages from British Celtic; recent work tends to reconstruct the lost Celtic form of the name as *[Londonjon] or something similar.
Peter Schrijver has specifically suggested, on these grounds, that the name originally meant 'place that floods (periodically, tidally)'.